广州| 泗水| 长宁| 巴林右旗| 红原| 稻城| 永福| 奇台| 开化| 镇雄| 淮南| 瑞安| 潮阳| 珲春| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 定兴| 白银| 宝山| 息县| 八达岭| 鞍山| 新邱| 宁夏| 宽甸| 馆陶| 漳州| 滦平| 大同市| 韶山| 娄烦| 富蕴| 临川| 台东| 镶黄旗| 集贤| 玛多| 沙河| 荥阳| 淄川| 乌当| 正定| 濉溪| 上海| 南江| 绥阳| 静海| 麻江| 贵阳| 新郑| 堆龙德庆| 潍坊| 舞钢| 洞口| 栖霞| 新宾| 彬县| 九台| 龙江| 汉口| 闽侯| 玛多| 铜陵县| 丰城| 连南| 米脂| 凌云| 广西| 巴南| 始兴| 南票| 惠安| 阿荣旗| 兴隆| 金阳| 阿拉尔| 唐河| 丹巴| 井研| 魏县| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 防城港| 茂县| 琼结| 遂宁| 西乌珠穆沁旗| 金华| 囊谦| 乾安| 邗江| 大关| 西山| 梁子湖| 南平| 湖口| 围场| 林芝镇| 呼伦贝尔| 元江| 喜德| 德令哈| 阳春| 化隆| 宜宾市| 黄岩| 金川| 宁陕| 微山| 左贡| 泗洪| 芜湖市| 独山子| 韩城| 宝清| 偃师| 彝良| 饶河| 凤冈| 息县| 留坝| 安图| 隆林| 长沙| 清镇| 敦化| 广平| 开县| 渭南| 阳春| 白云| 桦川| 李沧| 隆化| 加查| 辽宁| 南靖| 米脂| 乐山| 光泽| 阿拉善左旗| 岱岳| 兴宁| 景谷| 中江| 宁南| 独山子| 襄樊| 禄丰| 肇庆| 怀远| 文水| 吴桥| 德惠| 德安| 海门| 壤塘| 乌兰察布| 富顺| 定南| 苍山| 常德| 治多| 唐海| 那曲| 怀远| 大英| 西峡| 泉港| 玉门| 磐石| 定兴| 沁阳| 治多| 含山| 石阡| 鹰潭| 泊头| 桦川| 林口| 洛南| 马祖| 克山| 陇南| 麻城| 松溪| 铅山| 玛纳斯| 桃源| 雷州| 白朗| 秦皇岛| 桓仁| 昭通| 乐安| 银川| 略阳| 鱼台| 萝北| 肃宁| 永平| 遵义县| 巍山| 卓资| 龙岗| 马尔康| 沾化| 文安| 顺平| 普宁| 梨树| 高明| 吴江| 辽阳县| 蕉岭| 远安| 玛沁| 福清| 田阳| 保亭| 和平| 顺昌| 白朗| 江油| 石楼| 吴川| 阿图什| 鄂州| 大连| 恩施| 澄海| 长寿| 安顺| 镇赉| 什邡| 南澳| 贡山| 新青| 会昌| 沿滩| 贵溪| 清河| 云霄| 开平| 新津| 长白| 克拉玛依| 岳普湖| 南阳| 泗洪| 新都| 丰南| 东营| 安乡| 阿克塞| 筠连| 东西湖| 察雅| 伊春| 兴和| 涪陵| 乐业| 长寿| 上高| 石景山|

Час Земли в Китае

2019-09-21 12:36 来源:西江网

  Час Земли в Китае

  UNAIDSExecutiveDirectorMichelSidibespeaksduringaninterviewwithXinhuaNewsAgencyattheUnitedNationsheadquartersinNewYork,onJune12,,MichelSidibesaidTuesdayattheUNheadquartersafterhisreportonthelatestprogressoftheagencysstruggleagainstAIDS.(Xinhua/LiMuzi)UNITEDNATIONS,June12(Xinhua)--ChinaisplayingagreatroleinfightingAIDS,UNAIDSExecutiveDirectorMichelSidibesaidTuesdayattheUnitedNationsheadquartersafterhisreportonthelatestprogressoftheagencyalAssemblyin2016,theworldismakingstrongprogresstowardendingtheAIDSepidemicby2030,,makingsurethatsanitation,environment,sportandotherissuesareaddressed,igmforreinforcingrelevantservicedeliverysystem,,hesaid,addingthatChina,acountrywithsuccessfulexperiencein"barefootdoctors",canplayacriticalroleintrainingcommunityhealthworkers,,oneoftheleadingmediagroupsintheworld,hasbeenontheforefrontsharingresults,makingpeopleunderstandwhatneedstobeaddressed,andtryingtomobilize,advocateandcreatespaceforsocialchange,,battingtheepidemicinChinaandbeyond.Chinawillenactalargenumberofincentivestofurtherboostimportsinordertodrivedomesticindustrialupgradingandbettermeettheincreasinglydiversifiedconsumptiondemandsofpeople,theStateCouncil,medicineandnursingandrehastitutionalproceduresandunreasonablepriceincreasessoconsumerswillbenefitfromtheimportdutycuts."thetradeinservices,"Lisaidatthemeeting."Ourdeficitinservicestrademaybeturnedintoacatalystfortheupgradingoftheservicessector,",andimportsofproducerservicescoveringresearchanddesign,tradelogistics,consulting,energyconservationandenvironmentalprotectionwillbeencouraged,ceduresandpromotingauthorizedeconomicopera,,acreditinformationsysteminforeigntradeaswellasenhancedintellectualpropertyrightsprotectionareneededsothatforeigntradeandforeigninvestmentwillcomplementeachother."OurinitiativeofboostingimportsdemonstratesChinascommitmenttoanewroundofhigh-standardopening-up,toeconomicrestructuringandtoeconomictransformationandhigh-qualitydevelopment,",,accordingtofiguresprovidedbytheGeneralAdministrationofCustoms.

Chinahasbeendedicatedtoprovidingpublicgoodstotheinternationalcommunity,aswellasgettinginvolvedintheglobalgovernanceonenvironment,saidErikSolheim,ExecutiveDirectoroftheUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme(UNEP),inarecentinterviewwithPeople’ingeandestablishaglo,Chinawillestablishitsimageasaresponsiblemajorcountryanddrivetheconstructionofacommunitywithasharedfutureforhumanbeings,stressedChinesePresidentXiJinping,vironmentnotedthatChinahasmadehistoricalcontributionstotheParisAgreement,whichaimstoreducegreenhousegasesbeyond2020,andhasgreatlyenhancedthecountry’,PresidentXiissuedseveraljointstatementswiththenUSPresidentObamaandthenFrenchPresidentHollande,bridgingtheirdifferencestonegotiateandreachaconsensus,entiononClimateChange,puttingforwardChina’ssolutionanddrivingtheagreementonoutcomed,ChinahassetupministerialconsultationmechanismsonclimatechangewithBRICSmemberstatesandlaunchedtheministerialmeetingmechanismwithCanadaaswellastheEU,alparticipation,saidPanJiahua,directoroftheInstituteof,,acityineastChina’sJiangsuProvinceasanexample,itsthefirstcityinChinatoestablishalowcarboncitymanagementcloudplatform,basedoninformationtechnologiesincludingcloudcomputing,Internetofthings,geographicalinform,Zhenjiang,asoneofChina’sfirstbatchesofecologicalcivilizationleadingdemonstrationareas,alsodevelopedapproachestoterminatehighenergyconsumption,industryinDecember2017,and,thecountry’’scarbondioxi,ChinahassetthethirddayofNationalEner,tointroducethecountry’,theChinesegovernmentsupportsinitiativeofenterprisesandthegeneralpublic,effectivelyimprovingtheawarenessandactionabilities,activitiesconsideredlow-carbonincludingwalking,takingthesubwayorridingabikeandsellingsecondhandgoodscanbeconvertedintovirtual“greenenergy”inthe“AntForest”“greenenergy”isearned,publicserviceorganizationswillplantarealtreeinareassuchastheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegion.“I’mgladthatIcanmakecontributionstoprotectingtheearth,”’,buildingenergyefficiencyandthermalpowergeneration,,andthecountryisnowworkingonanimplementationplantoachievethisgoal.PhototakenonJune13,2018showsChinasnewgenerationdomesticmedium-low-speedmagneticlevitation(maglev)trainattheCRRCZhuzhouLocomotiveCo.,Ltd.,ZhuzhouofcentralChinamperhour,comparedwiththefirstgenerationstopspeedof100kmperhour.(Photo/Xinhua)PhototakenonJune13,2018showstheinteriorofChinasnewgenerationdomesticmedium-low-speedmagneticlevitation(maglev)trainattheCRRCZhuzhouLocomotiveCo.,Ltd.,ZhuzhouofcentralChinamperhour,comparedwiththefirstgenerationstopspeedof100kmperhour.(Photo/Xinhua)

  BEIJING,June2(Xinhua)--WithXiJinpingincharge,Chinaspoverty-reliefbattle,theworldsbiggestandtoughest,hasmadedecisiveprog(CPC)CentralCommitt,generalsecretaryoftheCPCCentralCommittee,themeetingstressedthatthebattleagainstpovertyisoneofthe"threetoughbattles",Chinaneedstoliftaround30millionpoorruralresidentsoutofpovertyinthenextthreeyears."Wemustbeawareofthedifficultiesandchallengesinwinningthebattle,andmusthaveastrongersenseofresponsibilityandurgencyinpovertyrelief,"sownwords,"Onthemarchtowardscommonprosperity,noonemustbeleftbehind."DuringasymposiumonpovertyalleviationinChengduinFebruarythisyear,Xisasleadership,targetedstrategies,strongfinancialsupport,nnualincomeof2,300yuan()--inthepastfiveyears,,,,thea,,,becomingthefirstcountrytocompletetheUnitedNations(UN)theruralareasby2020,Chinaiscarryingoutabasicstrategyoftargetedapproach,whichrequiresofficialsofalllevelstoidentifywhot,morecapableandsuitableoff,officialswithbusinesssavvyweresenttopoverty-strickenvillages,whileofficialswithspeci,Chinahasadoptedvariousmeanstoreducepoverty,includinge-commerce,financing,tourism,ommercepovertyreliefprogramsinthepastfiveyears,and23,,intheeyesofLiuYongfu,directoroftheStateCouncilLeadingGroupOfficeofPovertyAlleviationandDevelopment,,putmoreemphasisonquality,andbemoretargetedandprecise,Liusaid."Wewillworktofosterlocalindustries,createnewjobs,relocateresidentsinpoorareas...andstrengthenaidtotheaged,thedisabledandpeoplewhoareseriouslyill."GLOBALGOODTheachievementsChinahasmadeinpovertyalleviationhavenotonlyhelpedthedevelopmentofitsownhumanrightsendeavor,butalsogreatlycontributedtothatoftheinternationalcommunitywithChinesewisdomandsolutions,"themostrapidlarge-scalepovertyreductioninhumanhistoryoverthelast25years,"saida2016WorldBankdocument,whichwasreleasedaftertheWorldBanksone-yearresearchofworldwidepovertyreductioneffortsinpartnershipwiththeChinesegovernment."WeshouldnotforgetthefactthatChinahascontributedthemostinworldpovertyalleviationinthepastdecade,"UNSecretary-GeneralAntonioGuterressaidlastyearaboutChina,WashingtonbureauchiefoftheExecutiveIntelligenceReviewnewsmagazine,saidendingpovertyhadlongbeenregardedamajortaskforhumanity,butuntilrecentlywasseenasa"utopiandream.""WithChina,thatdreamisnowbecomingareality,"hesaid.TheMuseeRodin,amuseumthathousescollectionsofworkbythemastersculptorAugusteRodin-whoiswidelyregardedasthefatherofmodernsculpture-hasauthorizedthecreationofasisterlocationinChina,,ateamfromMuseeRodinledbyitsdirector,CatherineChevillot,havetouredShenzheninGuangdongprovince,HangzhouinZhejiangprovinceandXionganNewAreainHebeiprovince-aState-levscultureministry,saidChevillotatasessionheldonSaturdayatZhejiangUniversityinHangzhoutodiscussthemuseumsChinabranchwithChinesemuseumdirectors,sworkfromitscollectiontoMuseeRodinChinaforsixyears,includingmanyofRodinsiconicsculptures,suchasTheGatesofHell,TheAgeofBronzeandBalzac.

  TherelaysatellitefortheplannedChange-4lunarprobe,whichisexpectedtolandsoftlyonthefarsideoftheMoonattheendofthisyear,hasentereditsmissionorbit,,namedQueqiao,orMagpieBridge,launchedonMay21,enteredtheHaloorbitaroundthesecondLagrangian(L2)pointoftheEarth-Moonsystemabout65,000kmfromtheMoonat11:"Thesatelliteistheworldsfirstcommunicationsatelliteoperatinginthatorbit,andwilllaythefoundationfortheChange-4,whichisexpectedtobecomeworldsfirstprobesoft-landingandrovingonthefarsideoftheMoon,"saidZhangHongtai,presidentoftheChinaAcademyofSpaceTechnology.Theloneliestpeopl,andtheiragemeanstheycantgetaroundliketheyusedto.人们通常认为老年人是孤独的。

AfederaljudgeonTuesdayapprovedtelecommunicationsgiantATTs$85billionpurchaseofTimeWarner,,sargumentthattheacquisitionofTimeWarnerbyATT,theworldslargesttelecommunicationscompany,wouldleadtofewercho,,DonaldTrumpsaidhewouldopposethedeal"becauseitstoomuchconcentrationofpowerinthehandsoftoofew".Aspresident,TrumphasrepeatedlycriticizedCNN,whichisownedbyTimeWarnersunitTurnerBroadcasting,oftencallingit"fakenews.InadditiontoCNN,TimeWarnerownsTVnetworksHBO,,whichcouldgiveitnewkindsofsubscriptionsfromits119millionmobile,,whoarguedtheJusticeDepartmentcase,saidthedepartmentwouldre,includingdebt,wouldbethefourth-largestdealattemptedintheglobaltelecom,mediaandentertainmentspace,accordingtoThomsonReuters.

  ByCharlesHappellCANBERRA,(Xinhua)--TheAustraliangovernment,andnationalfarmersbody,havecalledonoppositiongroupstosupportthenew,reducedbackpackertax,saysitingAustraliaonworkingholidays-shouldbesubjecttoa19percenttaxrate,backpackertaxlegislationatthissitting,inordertomaintainAustraliasattractivenesstobackpackers,,TonyMahar,saidonThursdaythat,withjustthreeparliamentarysittingweeksleftthisyear,on."Therearerealpeopleadoftheyearwouldcreatefurtherunnecessaryuncertaintyforbackpackersandagriculturalbusinesses,"Maharsaid."Backpacker,,snotgoodenough."TheLaborOpposition,OneNationandTasmanian$,BarnabyJoyce,saidonThursdaythatthe19%backpackertaxwaseminentlyfairandlegislationsupportingthattaxneededtobepassedbyparliamentsoon."TheSenateCommitteeisconfidentthereformpackagewillensurethatworkingholidaymakersarepayingafairshareoftaxandnotdisadvantagingAustralianworkers,whileretainingAustraliaasadestinationofchoiceforthoseworkers,"kinAustraliacomparedtoNewZealand,Canada,ortheUKundera19%tax."Ourtaxpositionisfullyfundedandinternationallycompetitiveduetoourhighwagerates,whichwasalsohighlightedbyNSWFarmersandCottonAustraliaintheirsubmissionstothereport,"hesaid."NotonlydoesLaborsblatantlypoliticalgameplayingaddmoredelaysthatcouldseefruitleftunpickedonthetreesoverChristmas;andnotonlydoesLaborsproposalleavea$500millionholeinthefederalbudget,butLaborplanstoslapahighermarginaltaxrateonAussieworkersthanitdoesonforeignbackpackers.""ItwasLaborwhoreferredthereformpackagetotheSenateEconomicsCommitteeforreview,thecommitteehasreportedanditisnowuptoLabortostoppickingatthescabandplayinggameswithpeopleslivelihoods."Usuallyemployedonacasualbasis,backpackershelpfarmerspickseasonalharvestsofgrapes,cherries,blueberries,melons,applesandbananas,mainlyinAustralia:22923444----URL:http:///2016-11/10/content_

  BEIJING,June11(Xinhua)--XiJinping,generalsecretaryoftheCommunistPartyofChinaCentralCommittee,hasmadeinstruction,alsoChinesepresidentandchairmanoftheCentralMilitaryCommission,saidthatthetaskofeliminatingpovertyisarduousandthetimeispressing,sinstructionswereconveyedtoofficialsatavideoconferenceheldMondayiviationasamajorpoliticaltask,Xisaid,addingtop-rankingofficialsatalllevelsshallteCPCCentralCommittee,andcarryoutthePartysbasicpolicyontargetedpovertyalleviation,oorpeoplesothatnovillageorindividualwillbeleftbehind,,memberoftheStandingCommitteeofthePoliticalBureauoftheCPCCentralCommittee,buildamoderatelyprosperoussocietyinallrespectsaswellasakeytopromotingcoordinatedregionaldevelopment,sinstructionswerealsoconveyedtoparticipantsofthevideoconference,,amemberofthePoliticalBureauoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandheadoftheStateCouncilLeadingGroupOfficeofPovertyAlleviationandDevelopment,maderemarksattheconference.QiushiJournalisanauthoritativepublicationoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinafocusingonChina’,(http://),onlinedatabase(http://)ofQiushiJournalanditsaffiliatedpublicationRedFlagManuscript,andabstractsoftheoreticalarticlesfromothermajorChineseperiodicals,theEnglisheditionofQiushiJournalaimstopesandstrategieswithwhichtheCPCandtheChinesegovernmentrunthecountryandatopcommunicationchannelforpublicizingChina’sdevelopmenttheory,’sPath,China’sTheory,China’sSystems,China’sValues,China’sPolicy,China’sDefense,China’sPeacefulDevelopment,China’sExperience,,theEnglisheditionofQiushiJournalispublishedinJanuary,April,JulyandOctober.

  ChinesePresidentXiJinping(C)andotherleadersattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitposeforagroupphotoaheadofabanquetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/DingLin)QINGDAO,China,June9(Xinhua)--AsShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)leadersgatherinthisdynamicChineseportcityforasummitovertheweekend,theworldslargestregionalinstit,whichnowrepresentsnearlyhalftheglobalpopulationandservesasamodelforinternationalwin-wincooperation,sustainedsoundgrowthoftheorga,Chinascityofsails,istheSCOsfirstsinceIndiaandPakistanbecamefullmemberslastyear,andfollows17yearsofsteadyprogress,whichhasturne,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Russia,TajikistanandUzbekistanfoundedtheSCOinJune2001,itsprimarymissionwastobuildmutualtrust,safeguardtrans-bordersecurityandboostanti-terrorismcooperation,,theSCOmadeimpressiveachievementsincombatingthe"threeevilforces"ofterrorism,separatismandextremism,,,inlinewiththechangesintheinternationalcircumstancesandtheneedsofitsownmembers,theSCOgradual,theSCOhaeasures,andsignedtheSCODevelopmentStrategy2025andastringofotheragreements,providingastrongandsteadyboos,,theirtotaltradevolumealsogrewmorethanseven-fold,,,whichwasinitiatedin2007andnowcomprisesanetworkof82educationalinstitutionsinmemberstatesprovidinghighlyskilledpersonneltraininginsevenfields,astingvitalityofitsbedrockprinciple--theShanghaiSpirit,whichfeaturesmutualtrust,mutualbenefit,equality,consultation,,theSCOhasfaithfullyupheldtheShanghaiSpirit,advocatingmutualrespectandwin-wincooperationandfollowinganexterna,theSCOhasconsistentlyplayedanactiveandconstructiveroleinregionalandglobalaffairs,andsetastrikingexampleforforgingtheChina-championednewtypeofinternationalrelations,whichfeaturesmutualrespect,fairnessandjustice,,itroutinelyinvitesrepresentativesfrominternationalorganizationstoitssummits,anditalwaysstan,itisalsotheSCO,itnowboastsmorepeopleandbroadermarkets,tsoftheworld,,theBeltandRoadInitiativeandthebuildingofacommunitywithasharedfutureformankind--twograndvisionsproposedbyChiategiesofSCOcountries,adoptanumberofdocumentsandactionplansonpracticalcooperation,anddeliveraclearmessageonimpr,botholdandnew,shouldcontinuetostandtogetherintheShanghaiSpirit,andjsbirthcountrythattheexemplaryorganizationwill,asXisaidinhistoastatthewelcomedinneronSaturdayevening,"hoistthesailoftheShanghaiSpirit,breakwavesandembarkonanewvoyage."

  BEIJING,June4(Xinhua)--ChinesePresidentXiJinpingwillchairthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)Summit,whichisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinamprehensiverructiverolesinregionalandinternationalissues,andthereforesetanexampleofanewtypeofinternationalrelationsfeaturingmutualrespect,fairnessandjustice,andwin-wincooperation.--WhowillattendthesummitLeadersoftheeightSCOmemberstatesandthefourobserverstates,aswellasheadsofinternationalorsfullmembersareChina,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Russia,Tajikistan,Uzbekistan,,Belarus,Iran,andMongolia.--WhatisonagendaXiwillchairt,advocatethe"ShanghaiSpirit,"anddiscussmeasurestofightthe"threeevilforces"ofterrorism,extremismandseparatism,drugtrafficking,onsolidatingthemultilateraltradesystem,andlayoutnewplanstoenhancethesynergyofdevelopmentstrategiesofmemberstates,especiallypromotingt,thepresidentsofRussia,Kazakhstan,andKyrgyzstanwillpaystatevisitstoChina,--ConsensustobereachedThesummitwillissuetheQingdaoDeclarationtosummarizethedevelopmentexperienceoftheSCOandpromotethe"ShanghaiSpirit"ofmutualtrust,mutualbenefit,equality,consultation,respectfordiversecivilizations,ong-termGoodNeighborliness,FriendshipandCooperation,andapprovemorethan10cooperationdealscoveringareasincludingsecurity,economy,andpeople-to-peopleexchanges.Thisfigureaccountsfornearly35percentoftotalsponsorshipdealssignedforthisyear,eventhoughtheChineseteamwon’tbecompetingthisyear.“Chinaplaysasignificantroleinourstrategytopromoteglobaldevelopmentoffootball,anditsparticipationisindispensable,”,inFIFA,ithasproposedtoincrea,FIFAmustfocusitsattentiononChina,,about55percentofpeoplearewillingtobuyproductsfromWorldCupsponsors,,sponsoringthesportingeventislikebeinggivenagiantkeytotheoverseasmarket,ld,’,LyuQi,saidthatsponsorshipnotonlyreflectsthecompany’sstrategyofoverseasexpansion,butalsosuggeststhatChin$150millionsponsorshipdealin2016,whichwillallowthecompanytoenjoyalladvertisingandmarketingrightsofFIFAWorldCupmatchesin2018,2022,2026and2030.

  WhatdoesyourmusictastesayaboutYOUWhetheryouprefersophisticatedorsimplemusiccouldrevealalotaboutyourpersonality.你对复杂音乐或者简单音乐的喜好可以透露关于你性格的大量信息。

  ChinesePresidentXiJinping(C)andotherleadersattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitposeforagroupphotoaheadofabanquetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/DingLin)QINGDAO,China,June9(Xinhua)--AsShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)leadersgatherinthisdynamicChineseportcityforasummitovertheweekend,theworldslargestregionalinstit,whichnowrepresentsnearlyhalftheglobalpopulationandservesasamodelforinternationalwin-wincooperation,sustainedsoundgrowthoftheorga,Chinascityofsails,istheSCOsfirstsinceIndiaandPakistanbecamefullmemberslastyear,andfollows17yearsofsteadyprogress,whichhasturne,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Russia,TajikistanandUzbekistanfoundedtheSCOinJune2001,itsprimarymissionwastobuildmutualtrust,safeguardtrans-bordersecurityandboostanti-terrorismcooperation,,theSCOmadeimpressiveachievementsincombatingthe"threeevilforces"ofterrorism,separatismandextremism,,,inlinewiththechangesintheinternationalcircumstancesandtheneedsofitsownmembers,theSCOgradual,theSCOhaeasures,andsignedtheSCODevelopmentStrategy2025andastringofotheragreements,providingastrongandsteadyboos,,theirtotaltradevolumealsogrewmorethanseven-fold,,,whichwasinitiatedin2007andnowcomprisesanetworkof82educationalinstitutionsinmemberstatesprovidinghighlyskilledpersonneltraininginsevenfields,astingvitalityofitsbedrockprinciple--theShanghaiSpirit,whichfeaturesmutualtrust,mutualbenefit,equality,consultation,,theSCOhasfaithfullyupheldtheShanghaiSpirit,advocatingmutualrespectandwin-wincooperationandfollowinganexterna,theSCOhasconsistentlyplayedanactiveandconstructiveroleinregionalandglobalaffairs,andsetastrikingexampleforforgingtheChina-championednewtypeofinternationalrelations,whichfeaturesmutualrespect,fairnessandjustice,,itroutinelyinvitesrepresentativesfrominternationalorganizationstoitssummits,anditalwaysstan,itisalsotheSCO,itnowboastsmorepeopleandbroadermarkets,tsoftheworld,,theBeltandRoadInitiativeandthebuildingofacommunitywithasharedfutureformankind--twograndvisionsproposedbyChiategiesofSCOcountries,adoptanumberofdocumentsandactionplansonpracticalcooperation,anddeliveraclearmessageonimpr,botholdandnew,shouldcontinuetostandtogetherintheShanghaiSpirit,andjsbirthcountrythattheexemplaryorganizationwill,asXisaidinhistoastatthewelcomedinneronSaturdayevening,"hoistthesailoftheShanghaiSpirit,breakwavesandembarkonanewvoyage."

  rofapercentagepoint,itssecondratehikethisyearandtheseventhsincelate2015."Inviewofrealizedandexpectedlabormarketconditionsandinflation,the(FederalOpenMarket)Committeedecidedtoraisethetargetrangeforthefederalfundsrateto1-3/4to2percent,""continuedtostrengthen"andeconomicactivityhasbeen"risingatasolidrate",withhoustemsotherthanfoodandenergy"havemovedcloseto2percent",suggestingthatFedofficialsaregett,,,,,upfromthreeestimatedinMarch,kesremainstheappropriatepathforthecentralbanktosustaineconomicexpansion."Wecontinuedtobelievethatagradualapproachforincreasingthefederalfundsratewillbestpromoteasustainedexpansionofeconomicactivity,stronglabormarketconditions,andinflationnearoursymmetrictwopercentgoal,"PowellsaidWednesdayatapressconference."Weareawarethatraisingratestooslowlymightraisetheriskthatmonetarypolicywouldneedtotightenabruptlydowntheroadinresponsetoanunexpectedlysharpincreaseininflationorfinancialexcesses,jeopardizingtheeconomicexpansion,"heargued,owsannouncementmarkedtheFedsseventhratehikeofthistighteningcyclebeginningDecember2015andthesecondmoveunderPowell,ismonthestimatedthattheFedwouldraiseinterestratesagainatitsSeptemberpolicymeeting.TEHRAN,(Xinhua)--IransPresiden,,isareflectioninaUNSecurityCouncilResolution,sdecision,Rouhanisaid,referringtoTrumpsdisapprovingcommentsofIransnucleardeal,alsoknownastheJointComprehensivePlanofAction(JCPOA),isthenuclearagreementsealedbetweenIranandtheworldmajorpowers,,spolicies,as"IranspolicyofconstructiveinteractionwiththeworldandbreakingupnuclearsanctionshasplacedIranseconomictieswithallcountriesonanimprovingandirreversiblecourse."WashingtonwillnolongerbeabletocontinuethespreadofIranophobiaasbefore,,Iranscommitmentspertainingtothenucleardeal."ThisistheAmericanpeopleselection,andwerespectit,"ZarifsaidinhisfirstreactionfollowingthereportsaboutTrumpsvictory.",mitmentintheJCPOA,",DonaldTrump,aRepublican,defeatedrivalHillaryClinton,:22923585----URL:http:///2016-11/10/content_

  

  Час Земли в Китае

 
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明朝并不存在铜活字印刷
2019-09-21 07:54:39  来源: 澎湃新闻网(上海)

北京大学历史系教授辛德勇,近日于三联书店出版了新著——《中国印刷史研究》。辛德勇称,写作该书时务求“另立新意”“打破看起来天经地义的认知”。该书共分为三篇。上篇结合具体的社会文化条件,对印刷术的产生原因和时间做出说明。中篇考述唐宪宗元和年间是否以雕版印刷的方式大量刊印元稹和白居易的诗集,揭示了印刷术早期发展的内在原因。下篇集中论述了活字印刷中的铜活字问题。

“印刷术出现在密宗入华以后” 辛德勇在《中国印刷史研究》上篇提出“印刷术的发明实受印度捺印陀罗尼经技术的启发,而印刷术的真正出现则在密宗入华以后”。

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关于印刷术的源起,前人众说纷纭。唐代之前有西汉说、东汉说、魏晋南北朝说和隋代说;到了唐代,又有贞观说、高宗说、武周说和开元说等等。辛德勇在《中国印刷史研究》中认为,就目前所知反映唐代雕版印刷书籍最早年代的比较可靠的证据,就是雕版印刷的《无垢净光大陀罗尼经》。这卷佛经由唐朝传入新罗,并一直被保存在今韩国庆州佛国寺的释迦石塔中。辛德勇说:由于宗教信仰原因,陀罗尼经最好是用梵文原文写作。直至清朝,一个高官过世,皇帝赐给他的陀罗尼经被,上面都是梵文。用梵文可以更好地发挥其“消除人世一切业障,脱离苦海到极乐世界”的作用。印刷术的产生就是根据这个观念,最初雕版的是梵文,因为汉文谁都能写,梵文却是要高级的外国专家才能写的,所以雕版印刷术应运而生。辛德勇认为密宗的全面兴盛则是印刷术产生的社会驱动力:“开元年间佛教、密宗达到全面兴盛之后,才有足够强大的社会驱动力来驱动印刷术产生。” 辛德勇在公开的发布会上谈及,方广锠(佛教与敦煌学研究学者)曾问:“你这么大胆地提出观点,万一有更早的考古挖掘的东西出现怎么办?”他回答:“没关系,犯错误是很正常的,我必须在现有的条件下努力推进,即使做错了,我的研究也是向深推了一步。” 辛德勇在谈到自己对存世文物和现存文献的观点时说:“方先生说他曾接触到山西来的,持有带武则天年号的雕版印刷的佛经的文物贩子,但方先生没见到实物。我说如果有,那个年号一定是佛经的译出时间而不是刊刻时间,如果是刊刻时间那就太离奇了,因为跟一系列的时间都有冲突,我不相信。世界上流传的很多东西(即存世文物),如果不能和其他历史文献记载吻合,那一定是有问题的;如果世间流传的东西和历史文献记载是相抵触的,那百分之百是假的。”

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《无垢净光大陀罗尼经》 图片来源于微信公众号 无上福田

“在元白生活的时代还没有足够的需求促成以雕版印刷刊印诗作”

辛德勇《中国印刷史研究》的中篇为“书籍雕版印刷技术在世俗社会的传播扩散过程与元白流行诗篇的复制方式 ”。这一部分中,辛德勇着重考述了唐宪宗元和年间是否以雕版印刷的方式大量刊印元稹和白居易的诗集这一问题。

辛德勇列举了前辈学者的观点:“以赵万里为代表的一些学者,在论述书籍雕版印刷术的产生原因时,往往首举市民阶层传播文化的需要,唐人模勒元、白诗一事,则是其最为有力的证据。”“向达称:元氏所云,揆之刊书蜕演之迹,及日本《陀罗尼经》,理实可能。”

辛德勇认为赵万里“过分强调了书籍雕版印刷产生的社会下层因素,显然带有那个特定时代扭曲的痕迹 ”。此外,他认为向达“没有区分不同性质读物对雕版印刷的不同需求,单纯思考社会上是否已经产生印刷技术”。

辛德勇以“传世文献中有确切记载和在出土文献中得以证明的世俗读物印刷品,只有历日(即历书)、常用针灸方术(敦煌所见《新集备急灸经》)、民间仪式应用程文(敦煌所见《崔氏夫人训女文》)以及韵书和字书等小学书籍”得出结论:“在这样的背景下,若是很早就出现雕印鬻卖元、白诗作的情况,其性质与同时期其他宗教读物差别甚大,将显得非常突兀,恐怕不够合乎情理。 ”

“徐夤文集被刊刻,不足以成为元白诗集被刊刻的佐证”

在论述元白诗篇时否付之雕版印刷时,辛德勇用很大的篇幅讨论了徐夤的《自咏十韵》中 “拙赋偏闻镌印卖,恶诗亲见画图呈”。

这句诗历来被作为五代刻书的实例,也因而被很多学者拿来作为元白诗集也有可能被刊刻的佐证。

辛德勇认为,“徐夤上述诸赋被镌印贩卖,似乎更有可能是在其乾宁元年进士及第之后未久的时候。 且被刊刻的原因在于徐夤在进士考试时,即因所试《止戈为武赋》中 破山加点 拟戍无人 诸句为主考者激赏而中第,成为一时 知名进士 ,后 尝作《人生几何赋》,四方传写,长安纸价为高者三日 ,徐氏既是这样一位作赋的名家高手,世人自然要竞相赏析揣摩其作品。”

接着,辛德勇提出:“元、白二人播诸四方的元和体诗歌,虽然受到比较广泛的欢迎,但毕竟与功利没有直接关联,求索者只是出于一种喜好,从而也就未必过分迫切。当时更有一些文人,将他们二人撰写的那些 纤艳不呈 之诗,视同 淫言媟语 ,直欲 用法以治之 ,而这种厌恶嫉恨情绪已不仅仅限止在某些卫道士的私下言谈议论范围之内,事实上,白居易被贬谪为江州司马的罪状之一,便是所作 《赏花》及《新井》诗, 甚伤名教 。因而,对促动制作流行诗篇售卖牟利的社会需求以及由此引发的商业动力,也不宜估计过高。”

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2019-09-21,海南海口,在“中华印刷之光”巡回展上展出的铜活字。

“我否认明代出现了铜活字印刷”

铜活字印书,在明代弘治至万历初年曾经盛极一时,其中尤以无锡华氏会通馆、兰雪堂和安氏桂坡馆最为著名,这大体上已经成为海内外学术界高度一致的共识,甚至可以说已经成为中国古代文化常识。

辛德勇在《中国印刷史研究》下篇指出:这种认识缺乏合理依据。由于明朝铜资源的紧张与铜原料的昂贵,政府法律对民间用铜的严格限制,以及铜的硬度太高,中国过去缺乏大量刻制铜字的技术手段,事实上明朝并不存在铜活字印刷,中外学术界流行多年的传统看法,难以成立。

他论述道:“活字印刷,字和版是两个东西,活字铜版或者铜版活字,不一定是指字和版都是铜的。铜版按理说是放字的硬板,跟字没关系。明末人方以智称:用木刻之,用铜板合之;清朝王士禛仍然说当时应用的活字印刷是用木刻字,铜板合之。方以智、王士禛等人讲到的情况,显然都是将木活字安放在铜质版片上印刷。”

“根据切实可靠的记载,雕版印刷刻字的时候需要合金以提高铜的硬度,一般是加入锡、铅、砷。锡太软,肯定也加其他东西,所以古人有 铜板锡制 的记载。我推测有两个原因,一是锡的造价比铜低一点,二是铜的硬度高,刻不动。所以铜活字在明代基本是不存在的。”辛德勇说。

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